Para Biathlon is practised by athletes with a physical disability in the upper and lower limbs (standing), a disability in the lower limbs or trunk (sitting) or with a visual impairment. In the case of a lower limb disability, a sledge mounted on cross-country skis is used instead of skis. In the case of a visual impairment, the athlete can choose to be accompanied by a guide along the cross-country track, while at the shooting range they use an electronic rifle equipped with an electro-acoustic visor that allows them to take aim through their hearing. The more the rifle points at the centre of the target, the more intense the acoustic signal that is propagated through the headphones worn by the athlete.
Para-biathlon was introduced at the Paralympic Winter Games Innsbruck 1988 for athletes with physical disabilities. Visually impaired athletes began competing in Albertville in 1992, while the women's events were included in the Paralympic programme in Lillehammer 1994.
The men's events are run over 7.5, 12.5 and 15 km, while the women's events are run over 6, 10 and 12.5 km.
Russia, Germany, Ukraine, France and Norway occupy the top five positions in the overall medals table for each nation.